VIDEO of Kentucky Historic Antebellum Old Houses For Sale
VIDEO of Kentucky Historic Antebellum Old Houses For Sale. call or text Ken 859-494-5521.
United States Department of the Interior National Park Service
NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES
Section_7__ Page_1_ 7. Description: Richland Farm Lincoln County, Kentucky Richland Farm (LI-813) is a Greek Revival, 10-room house constructed in 1850 in Lincoln County, Kentucky. The house exterior is composed of red brick, laid in the English Common bond style. It has a stone foundation. The entire area proposed for listing is less than one acre, restricted to the area of the house’s footprint and a 10-foot margin surrounding. The house sits within a 12.5-acre property. The primary entrance to the house faces North and a secondary entrance to the West. Black Walnut, Yellow Wood, Dogwood, and Maple trees surround the immediate house. There are several different kinds of evergreens, such as Blue Spruce, and Austrian Pine. The 12.5-acre farm is surrounded by Bluegrass farmland on three sides and cornfields on the fourth side. The house was built in an ell-plan, common for the period and for convenience. The house’s portico is a classical temple form, which is set over the two-story porch. The roof is a low pitch pediment with raking cornice. The house has double entry doors. The entry doors, front and side, have horizontal transoms over the doors and the front doors, first and second floors, have sidelights as well. Out in the yard from the front entrance is located a “hopping stone” for getting on horses and into carriages. The original brick walkway to the hopping stone has been located under the grass and is in the process of being uncovered. The four square columns are Doric style with bold, simple wood cornices. A porch on the South side of the ell wing provides entry to the first floor. According to oral history a back door on the ell wing apparently opened to a back yard pump, and another structure, now gone, and the door is now a full length, ceiling to floor window, (Iva Stull. August, 1, 2001). All the windows and doors are trabeated. The windows are 6/6 double-hung sash windows. The windows on the East side of the house are closed in with wood shutters and are actually blind windows, also common for the period. The West side of the house has no windows and never did have them, again a common practice. The arrangement of the interior of the primary façade of the house is conventional, with two large rooms laid out in standard fashion, a room on either side of the large central stair hall. The rear ell is not symmetrical and has three large rooms. The front door opens into a very wide hall with an extra wide staircase leading to the second floor landing. Left of the front door was a parlor and on the right a second parlor with a dining room beyond with the original chandeliers present. The original kitchen opened onto “a pantry that held a year’s worth of food stuff.” There are two bedrooms upstairs, with each room having a fire place with original Ash mantles. The floors are all tongue and groove (Historic Homes and Old Buildings of Lincoln County, Shirley Dunn. pp, 29-30). In the original house there were no bathrooms provided. The four bathrooms now present were added by Charles Stull in the 1980s. These bathrooms are located behind the present family room, next to the present master bedroom, and upstairs there are two bathrooms beside the present day sun porch. A modern kitchen was created as an entirely separate room attached to the original ell in the area that was an open porch. Otherwise, the upper floors of the primary house and ell wing conform to those on the floor below. There are two large bedrooms on either side of the hall in the front of the house with another bedroom behind the one on the ell and a maid’s room behind that room. The two back rooms are attached to the present enclosed sun porch, which was an open sleeping porch when the original house was built. There are back stairs leading from the maid’s room down to the first floor and the original dining room, the present day family room. There are pull down stairs to the attic from the enclosed sun porch. The attic is unfinished but does provide access to the three chimneys. Currently, a cellar door off of the wall under dining room window leads to a “dug out” cellar that provides space for water heaters. The walls do show some old white wash and there are visible scantlings with nailers for support for the chimneys that show the original carpentry. The house still shows numerous features of Greek Revival style, such as high base boards and key decorations, that are typical of Greek Revival styled houses. In Lincoln County. According to an article in the Advocate Messenger newspaper, Danville, KY and the book Three Rooftrees by Margaret Francis Hocker, granddaughter of Richard W. Hocker, the brick for the house was burned on the place. The floors, mantles, and framing is of Ash and Oak, harvested from the property. According to Iva Stull, widow of Charles Stull, the Present laundry room, installed in the 1970s, was the old kitchen, and the dining room was a master bedroom. The Stulls added a new kitchen and replaced all the ceilings upstairs. The bathrooms were added upstairs and downstairs in the 1980s. The sleeping porch upstairs was also enclosed in the 1980s and is now a sun porch. The original porch and balcony in front are still of the original brick, but the railings are now wood. The original railings were of cast iron, common for the period (Three Rooftrees, page 17). The original pump and cistern behind the house are still in use. Slave quarters behind the pump house were razed, according to oral history by Iva Stull, August, 2001. Unfortunately, there appears to be no record of who built the primary house except by oral history from family members. Richard Shye Hocker (deceased), great grandson of the original owner, says the home place was built by Richard Weaver Hocker, his great grandfather. Also in the book, Three Rooftrees, the owner and builder of the house is mentioned as Richard W. Hocker. No other records have been located. The layout and style appear to be a universal one whose plans were available to the general public of the time. Integrity AnalysisRichland Farm retains its original exterior comprised of common bond bricks burnedontheplaceanditsoriginal6/6windows. The front porch had iron railing when it was originally constructed but those were replaced in the 1980s with wood railings. The Soffit and eaves have retained the original wood and the interior gutters leading to the cistern in the back are still in place. The Greek Revival style of Richland Farm has been retained, though there was a side porch constructed of brick added in the 1980s. A kitchen, library and bathrooms were added in the 1980s, as well, but were attached to the back of the house and built where there was only open space in the past. The original sleeping porch was enclosed at the same time but the original bricks were retained and are visible. The rest of the exterior has retained the Greek Revival styling though the shutters on the front of the house are missing. Compared to the other Greek Revival buildings surveyed in Lincoln County, Richland has retained and displays the design and materials required to convey the beauty of the style. The workmanship, integrity of materials and the very definite Greek Revival design is maintained. The square, Doric columns, made of brick burned on the property, are unique in the County as almost all the other Greek Revival houses of the period are round and made of wood. Key comparative properties include Arcadia (LI-1), Forrest Hill (a.k.a. the John Cash home, LI-57), and the John Baughman home (LI-53). 8. Significance Richland Farm Lincoln County, Kentucky Richland (LI-813) meets National Register Criterion C and is a significant design in an important architectural period in the history of Lincoln County, Kentucky. It is an excellent local example of early Classical-Greek Revival architecture (1830- 1860). The structure can be seen as one of the delineators of the Greek Revival Period of architecture in the rural county. The building’s significance is considered within the historic context “Development of Greek Revival Styling in Lincoln County, Kentucky, 1830-1860.” Greek Revival styling was prominent within the County, as the County attained a stability and wealth during the period of the style’s flowering. As a result, the County still retains a significant concentration of houses exhibiting hallmarks of the style. Within that context, Richland is valuable as an example of dedicated personal workmanship and commitment to the Greek Revival style that was popular and desirable during this period. Historic Context: DEVELOPMENT OF GREEK REVIVAL STYLING IN LINCOLN COUNTY, KENTUCKY, 1830-1860 Greek Revival architecture in Lincoln County from 1830-1860 was included in the 1970 survey conducted by the University of Kentucky in conjunction with the Kentucky Heritage Council. Richlandwasoneofatleast60documentedatthat time. Much of the house-specific information within this context narrative has been drawn from the images and written material from that survey work, as it was recorded on forms in the Kentucky Heritage Council files. Lincoln County was the largest of the nine counties that comprised Kentucky at statehoodin1792. It stretched from one end of Kentucky to the other, including areas that are today Livingston County in the west and Harlan County in the east. The county was named in 1780 when part of Virginia. The area that became present-day Lincoln County has some of the state’s earliest settlement and extant brick buildings. As farms and farmers became more successful in Lincoln County during the early nineteenth century, they built homes reflecting this success through up-to- date designs and styling. The Greek Revival style emerged within the United States as one of the first ‘romantic’ styles, and came to dominate the newly independent U.S. through much of the first half of the nineteenth century. Its appeal came from the sentiment that America, with its democratic ideals, was the spiritual successor of ancient Greece. Architectural modes evocative of Greek democracy were considered appropriate in the years following the War of 1812. Many in Lincoln County followed these national design choices. Most domestic Greek Revival style houses date from 1830-1850, when the style was disseminated by the users of carpenter’s guides and pattern books. The decline of the style was gradual; it remained dominant until the 1860s in Lincoln County and elsewhere in the South. The elegant style could result from the hand of skilled designers or of vernacular builders. Some builders used bona fide architects of the time, such as Gideon Shryock. A native Kentuckian, Shryock led Commonwealth design out of the log cabin-Georgian Colonial era into the age of Greek Revival with his impressive state capitol (FR-FO-33, 1827) as well as later residential construction (Thomas D. Clark: page xxi). More frequently in Lincoln County and elsewhere, amateur designers relied heavily on architectural treatises, builders’ guides, or their eye and building skills to implement the new style. The nominated property is likely a result of a builder’s guide, as no documents naming a specific architect have been located. In Field Guide to American Houses, Virginia & Lee McAlester divide Greek Revival styling into six principal subtypes. Two of these are present in Lincoln County: full-height entry, and the entry porch less than full height or absent (Leo Hayden home, LI-830). None of the four remaining subtypes gable-front-and- wing houses, front gabled roofs, full-facade porch, or town houses were recorded in Lincoln County nor seem likely to have been located there. These four sub-types tended to occur more frequently in the Northeast U.S. and in eastern seaboard cities, from which fewer Kentucky settlers came (p. 180). The full-facade porch subtype does appear in other areas in the South but didn’t make an appearance in Lincoln County. The full-height entry subtype appears to be the most common choice among Lincoln County’s documented houses, and is represented by Arcadia (LI-1, 1836), the John Cash home, Forrest Hill (LI-57, 1840), John Baughman home (LI-53, 1847), and the nominated property, Richland (LI-813, 1850). These homes have the traditional classical pediment above the full-height entry. 10 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES CONTINUATION SHEET Section_8__ Page_3_ Richland Farm Lincoln County, Kentucky In the full-height entry subtype the side-gabled or hipped roof is present and the gable is turned 90 degrees to make the principal façade. The McAlesters point to this feature as an enduring legacy of the Greek Revival to American domestic architecture. The columns are a prominent feature of these full-height entry porches, sporting the basic Doric Design which helps distinguish them as Classical. Although columns of classical antiquity were round and most of the Greek Revival structures in the County have this feature, the nominated home has square columns. This is common in vernacular Greek Revival homes-simple and inexpensive to construct from bricks likely kilned on the place. The almost universal feature of Greek Revival houses, the wide band of trim beneath the cornice of the main roof and porch roof, is also present in all the houses, and Richland is no exception. The comparable houses and the nominated house all have elaborate recessed doors, a dominant feature of this style, surrounded on top and sides by narrow rectangular panes of glass. Although some panes are on the sides only (Shadowlawn & Arcadia) and others are on the top & sides (Walnut Meadows, LI-8 & Richland). All the houses show the common six-pane glazed windows of the style and are less elaborate than the doors. Architectural Analysis: Richland is an excellent example of the Greek Revival period of architecture in Lincoln County by virtue of its design and execution. It retains the key feature of its subtype, the large two-story entry, as do the majority of the Greek Revival structures in Lincoln County, houses enhanced by monumental two-story, one- bay, pedimented Doric or Ionic porticos. In time, Greek Revival style became a symbol of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, a state occupied by a landed gentry in affluent country estates. Richland exhibits such character in its high quality construction, craftsmanship, and workmanship, as do many other Greek Revival houses in Lincoln County. The number of houses with this once-common style is now shrinking, and Richland is a good example. The Greek Revival style and Richland represent a significant part of architectural development in Lincoln County, Kentucky, 1830- 1860. The owner and possible builder of the nominated house, Richard Weaver Hocker was sheriff of Lincoln County as well as a successful farmer of the period. 11 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES CONTINUATION SHEETSection_8__ Page_4_ Historical Background: Richland Farm Lincoln County, Kentucky The first settlers of the County settled in Logan’s Fort, established by Colonel Benjamin Logan, in 1775. Richard W. Hocker, builder of Richland, is a direct descendant of General Logan. The Fort was sometimes call St. Asaph’s Station. The County’s most famous early settlers were William Whitley and the first Governor of Kentucky, Isaac Shelby. Colonel William Whitley built the first stone house in the Commonwealth of Kentucky and the first circular racetrack (Early Lincoln County History, Mrs. M.H. Dunn, editor, p.68). The nominated property was bought in 1849 by Richard W. Hocker and his wife, Margaret Ann Shanks Hocker. The land was part of the original John James survey of 14,000 acres (Deed Book LL p. 318, Lincoln County Court House). Richard W. Hocker is credited with building the present house according to the book, Three Rooftrees by Margaret Shanks Hocker Francis. The property has had 14 different owners since the original owners, and has been both a private residence and a home for foster children (Charles & Iva Stull, 1990). It is believed that the farm was named Richland due to its proximity to a creek of the same name, located near the Wilderness Road (Early Lincoln County History, Mrs. M.H. Dunn, editor p.53). 9. Bibliographic Resources OMB No. 1024-0018 Richland Farm Lincoln County, Kentucky Architecture in Old Kentucky, Rexford Newcomb, University of Irbana, IL, 1953 . Discussion with General Jesse Shye Mocker (USAF, Ret, deceased), Texas, descendant of Richard W. Hocker, owner/builder, July 14, 2001, Notes at Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort, KY. Discussion with Mrs. Iva Stull, Richmond, KY, former owner/resident of Richland Farm, August 1, 2001, Notes at Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort, KY. A Field Guide to American Houses, Virginia & Less McAlester, Knopf, Inc, New York, Toronto, 1984 pp.179-196. A History of American Architecture; Buildings in Their Cultural and Technological Context, Mark Gelernter, University Press of New England, 1999, pp. 130-138. Early Lincoln County History, Mrs. M.H. Dunn, editor, self-published, n.d., see especially pp. 53 & 58. Historic Homes and Old Buildings of Lincoln County, Kentucky, Shirley Dunn, self-published, 1971 pp. 29-30. Kentucky Encyclopedia, John E. Kleber, Editor-in-Chief, the University Press of Kentucky, 1992, see p. xxi. Three Rooftrees, Margaret Shanks Hocker Francis, self-published, 1957, Copy at Kentucky Heritage council, Frankfort, KY. USDA/NPS NRHP Registration Form Richland Farm Lincoln County, Kentucky NFS Form 10-900-a (8-86) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SERVICE Section Photos Page 1 Photographic Identification Sheet Same information for all photos: Name: Richland Farm (LI-813) Location: Lincoln County, KY OMB No. 1024-0018 Richland Farm Lincoln County, Kentucky Date: March, 2004 Location of Negatives: Kentucky Heritage Council 300 Washington Street Frankfort, KY 40601 Kentucky Historic Homes For Sale Richland c. 1850 call or text Ken 859-494-5521
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